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911 Service - A universal telephone number which gives the public direct access to the PSAP. Basic 911 service collects 911 calls from one or more local exchange switches that serve a geographic area. The calls are then sent to the correct authority designated to receive such calls Narrowband - A term applied to telecommunications facilities capable of carrying only voice, facsimile images, slow-scan video images and data transmissions at "kilobit" speeds. The term is commonly applied to voice-grade analog facilities and to digital facilities operating at low speeds (less than 1.544 Nbps). National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) - An association of state and local utility commissioners who regulate intrastate utility services such as electric, power, gas, transportation and telephone. National Exchange Carrier Association (NECA) - NECA was established by the FCC to act as an association for LECs. NECA prepares common tariffs and administers the revenue pool among its members for access provided to interexchange long-distance carriers National Emergency Number Association (NENA) - A national association to foster the technological advancement, availability and implementation of a universal emergency telephone number system. NENA promotes research, planning, training and 12 education. The protection of human life, the preservation of property and the maintenance of general community security are among NENA's objectives. Nationwide/Statewide Cost Averaging - A method of averaging costs to establish uniform prices for telephone service so that subscribers using more costly-to-serve, lightly-trafficked routes - such as those between small communities - receive the same price as subscribers on lower-cost, highly-trafficked metropolitan routes. Network - A combination of transmission facilities and switching capacity which allows users to communicate with other users of linked facilities. Examples: local exchange telephone networks, cellular wireless networks, cable television networks, CAP networks, and private facility-based networks. Network Element - As defined in the Telecommunications Act of 1996, a facility or equipment used in provisioning a telecommunications service. The term may include the features, functions and capabilities of that facility or equipment Network Interface Device (NID) - (1) A device that performs interface functions, such as code and protocol conversion, and buffering, required for communications to and from a network. (2) A device used primarily within a local area network (LAN) to allow a number of independent devices, with varying protocols, to communicate with each other. Note 1: An NID converts each device protocol into a common transmission protocol. Note 2: The transmission protocol may be chosen to accommodate directly a number of the devices used within the network without the need for protocol conversion for those devices by the NID. Network Interface Unit (NIU) - See Network Interface Device (NID) New Entrant/Exchange Carrier (NEC) - See CLEC North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA) - The impartial administrator of the North American Numbering Plan (NANP). North American Numbering Plan (NANP) - The numbering plan used in the United States that also serves Canada, Bermuda, Puerto Rico and certain Caribbean Islands. The NANP format is a 10 digit number that consists of a 3 digit NPA code (commonly referred to as the area code), followed by a 3 digit NXX code and a 4 digit line number. Notice of Inquiry (NOI) - FCC term - a NOI is adopted by the FCC Commissioners primarily for fact gathering, a way to seek comments from the public or industry on a specific issue. After reviewing comments from an NOI, the FCC may issue a Notice or Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), or it may release a Report & Order (ROI) explaining what action or non-action is taken. Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) - FCC term - a NPRM is adopted by the FCC Commissioners to detail proposed changes to FCC rules and to seek public comment on these proposals. After reviewing the comments to the NPRM, the FCC may issue a Further NPRM to provide an opportunity for the public to comment further on a related proposal. The next step is a Report & Order (ROI). Numbering Plan Area - A defined geographic area identified by a unique three-digit code used in the North American Number Plan (NANP) Area. Note 1: Defined geographic area could mean the entire area encompassed by the North American Numbering Plan Area (for 800, 888, 877 codes, etc.). Note 2: By virtue of the overlay concept deployed in some states, there may be two (or more) NPAs assigned to the same defined geographic area. Number Portability - Number portability is the term used to describe capability of individuals, businesses and organizations to retain their existing telephone number(s) - and the same quality of service - when switching to a new local service provider. NXX - The three digit code which appears as the first three digits of a seven digit telephone number.

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