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Backbone - The portion of a network that carries mass traffic between smaller networks. (Think of the backbone as an interstate highway system that connects smaller roads.) Back-haul - (1) Routing of a call that appears to take an illogical path through a communications network. (2) Link between customer premises equipment (CPE) and multiplexing equipment. (3) Link between aground satellite or submarine cable terminal and a switching center. Bandwidth - A range of frequencies in the broadcast spectrum that is occupied by a signal. (For example, a television channel may have a bandwidth of 6 MHz.) The "necessary bandwidth" is the amount of spectrum required to transmit the signal without distortion or loss of information. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules require suppression of the signal outside the band to prevent interference. Baud - A measure of the speed at which data is transmitted, computed in number of elements changed per second. The "Baud Rate" is the speed in which a computer can transfer data through a modem using communications software. bit (Binary Information Unit or Binary Digit) - The smallest unit of digital information. A single digit number in "base-2", either a 0 or 10. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second (bps). Blog - A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Blogger - Someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogging - The activity of updating a blog. BOC (Bell Operating Company ) - One of the 22 local exchange telephone companies that prior to theJan. 1, 1984 breakup of the Bell System comprised the arm of AT&T providing local telephone services. BOCs provide about 80% of the nation's local exchange telephone subscribers with service. (See RBOC) bps - Bits per second. See Bit BRI (Basic Rate Interface) - A consumer grade ISDN line consisting of 2 64 K bearer channels and one 16K delta (controller) channel. Broadband - Broadband is a descriptive term for evolving digital technologies offering consumers a single switched facility offering integrated access to voice, high speed data services, video demand services and interactive information delivery services. Broadband also is used to define an analog transmission technique for data or video that provides multiple channels. A cable TV system, for example, employs analog broadband transmission. Browser - A software program used to query, search and view information on computer sites connected to the Internet Byte - A set of "bits" that represent a single character. Usually there are eight bits in a Byte.

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